At the dawn of history...
the Ossola district is populated by the Leponzi, whose capital is Oscela Lepontiorum, today's Domodossola. This people of Ligurian race comes into contact with the more advanced civilization of the Etruscans and gets by them strongly influenced, learning the mining art and the fusion of iron.
Cupelled stones arid carvings were found at the Alpe Groppo, Alpe Curzelli and Alpe Cama.
Megalithic walls, structures of "tholos" tumbs at Varchignoli and Viganella.
From the C6 B.C....
the Romans penetrated into the Ossola. Oscela became municipality and seat of the garrison for the control of the trans-alpine itineraries, mainly the Gries, Arbola, Sempione, Saas and Monte Moro pass; these alpine passages at that time afready held commercial importance; but there's no evidence that the Romans made use of them for military purposes.
As a consequence, the Leponzi were induced to occupy permanently the most elevated areas of the Ossola, formerly used only as summer pastures.
A Roman age coin was found at the Saas pass.
Tombs at Rivera of Viganella and Montescheno.
From the C6 A.D....
at the end of the Roman empire, first the Longobards and later the Franks occupy the valleys of the Ossola.
Here also the feudal system is established as well as the economy based on the "court".
Around the year 1000 the dominion of the bishop of Novara spreads over the Ossola. In 1291 the De Castello family sells the Vaira valley (renamed Zwischbergental) and Gondo to the bishop of Sion, who populates them with "walser" people.
In 1329 Giovanni Visconti is appointed as bishop of Novara, of which he also gets to be proclaimed the "Lord".
He prepares the ground for the Visconti domination of the Ossola. The Ossola district gets involved in frequent wars and conflicts between this powerful family and its neighbours. Up to 1600 in the dukedom of Milan, contended by the Sforza family, the French and the Spanish, different political situations take place alternately. Famines and epidemics spread out, the most severe one being the plague of 1629/1630.
With the passage from the Spanish dominion to the Austrian empire, the situation does not change.
Up to 1700...
The valley's activities, other than stock and sheep rearing, are characterized by metallurgy and the iron craftsmen (blacksmiths, pewter workers, coalmen) represent for a long time the most important professional figures.
In 1790, after a period of crisis that causes a heavy emigration, a blacksmith from Intra, named Pietro Maria Ceretti, instalis a blast furnace at Viganella, starting that steel industry that will characterize the Ossola economy tiil nowadays.
Also on the initiative of the P. M. Ceretti company, the first hydroelectric power plant is set up on the Ovesca stream.
Traces and ruins of the iron ore extraction and fusion at Porta, Viganelia and Montescheno.
In connection with this activity is the working of the "laugera" stone, not only used in the steei industry but also in the manufacture of millstones and pottery. The laugera stone was also exported out of the Ossola by the local stone-cutter masters.
Laugera quarries at Montescheno, Viganella and Antrona.
From 1776 to 1936...
The exploitation of the gold mines takes place.
Mines at Locasca, Trivera, Mottone.
From 1922 to 1960...
The exploitation of mica quarries takes place.
Quarry "I Mondei" at Montescheno.
From 1600 to 1800...
The maximum production of wooden sculptures is reported, some evidence of which remains in the holy ornaments of the valley's churches.
From 1899 to 1930...
The development of structures for the production of hydroelectric energy takes place. These structures still condition life and landscape of the whole vailey.
From 1940 to 1945...
During the 2nd world war several mournful episodes happened, related to the struggle for the Liberation.
Chapels and Memorial Stones at Alpe La Colma, Alpe Cavallo and Antrona.
There is an administrative rearrangement that brings back from two to four the number of the valley' 5 municipalities.
the Antrona valley territory becomes a part of the new province of the V.C.O.